This will require you to read your data, probably several times, to get a … In short, the tools for qualitative data collection that you need are Excel and Word, as well as web-based free tools like Text Analyzer and WordCounter. However, focus group leaders must be careful not to let disagreements escalate, as anger can make people lie to be hurtful or simply to win an argument. Qualitative data analysis plays an important role in research. To draw a meaningful result out of the data texts, the qualitative analysis is done. Support for data, finance, & business analysts. Math for Financial Analysts: What do you really need? Simply put, qualitative analysis focuses on words, descriptions or ideas, while quantitative research focuses on numbers. Examples of good interview questions include: The alternative to interviews is focus groups. For this article, we will not cover techniques that generate quantitative statistics from qualitative data. Steps in qualitative data analysis. Begin with an introduction that establishes the research question and approach. Other factors at play include the type of research, the field, and specific research goal. Second, social science researchers typically focus on documents since their research questions are less concerned with subject-oriented data, while hard science and business researchers typically focus on interviews and focus groups because they want to know what people think, and they want to know today. Step … Qualitative data analysis plays an important role in research. Qualitative data coding . NVivo, Atlas ti 6.0, HyperRESEARCH 2.8, Max QDA and others. Qualitative research is a broad field of inquiry that uses unstructured data collections methods, such as observations, interviews, surveys and documents, to find themes and meanings to inform our understanding of the world. For example, you might be working with interview transcripts, survey responses, fieldnotes, or recordings from natural settings. Similarities and differences between the basic types of qualitative text analysis. I would like to add a few thoughts about the transcription process by reviewing some additional literature sources and by adding a few of my own experiences. Most types of qualitative data analysis share the same five steps: Prepare and organize your data. Qualitative research is a generic term that refers to a group of methods, and ways of collecting and analysing data … The e-book explains all stages of the research process starting from the selection of the research area to writing personal reflection. Qualitative data explores the “softer side” of things. Typically, the leader will ask questions to stimulate conversation, reformulate questions to bring the discussion back to focus, and prevent the discussion from turning sour or giving way to bad faith. This process requires saving the word doc as an .htm extension, which makes it a website. This refers to the process of categorizing verbal or behavioural data to classify, summarize and tabulate the data. The aim of this paper is to equip readers with an understanding of the principles of qualitative data analysis and offer a practical example of how analysis might be undertaken in an interview-based study. Once you have the website, it’s as simple as opening that page, scrolling to the bottom, and copying/pasting the comments, or codes, into an excel document. Step 2: Identifying themes, patterns and relationships.Unlike quantitative methods, in qualitative data analysis there are no universally applicable techniques that can be applied to generate findings.Analytical and critical thinking skills of researcher plays significant role in data analysis in qualitative … This is one of the primary methods of analyzing data you certainly shouldn’t overlook. . This methodology won’t help us find a specific word, but it will help us discover the top performing phrases and words. Bring order to the chaos. In this way, it’s very similar to word frequency (discussed above). Specifically, the most popular and effective methods of qualitative data interpretation include the following: Step 3: Summarizing the data. Nevertheless, there are a few go-to techniques. Use this type of qualitative data analysis to highlight important aspects of their stories that will best resonate with your readers. It usually aims at drawing conclusions that explain why a phenomenon occurs, rather than that one does occur. And word frequency is the process of finding a specific word or identifying the most common words through 3 steps: Here’s another look at word frequency processing and how you to do it. Disagreement often leads to valuable information about differing opinions, as people tend to say what they mean if contradicted. To achieve the goal of this research and to accomplish “rich theoretical insights 12] p. 613.” 4. The available types of qualitative research are as follows. 5. A model of qualitative data analysis can be outlined in five steps: compiling, disassembling, reassembling, interpreting, and concluding. Sometimes, data collection is limited to recording and docu-menting naturally occurring phenomena, for example by recording interactions. Qualitative data analysis. The redundant codes will be collapsed and codes will be renamed. Focus group questions should be open-ended like their interview neighbors, and they should stimulate some degree of disagreement. If you are sourcing online documents, try as often as possible to get computer-readable PDF documents that you can easily copy/paste or convert. However, majority of the researchers and postgraduate students did not consider the importance of giving detailed procedures in qualitative data analysis for better understanding of the qualitative results. In short, coding in the context of data analysis for qualitative research follows 2 steps (video below): Let’s look at a brief example of how to code for qualitative research in this video: Click here for a link to the source text.1. Narrative analysis. The basic process and the various phases of these three methods. And, highlight critical points you have found in other areas of your research. I pasted the abstract from our source text, and what turns up is as expected. I’ve made a video to explain this process and places it below. Unquestionably, data analysis is the most complex and mysterious of all of the phases of a qualitative project, and the one that receives the least thoughtful discussion in the literature. In this short video, we finish the example from above by counting the number of times our codes appear. Qualitative data analysis can be divided into the following five categories: 1. This is more advanced method that consists of several stages such as familiarization, identifying a thematic framework, coding, charting, mapping and interpretation. The second section of this paper centres on the literature review that explained the context of qualitative research technique on what qualitative technique is all about and its importance. 5. An important point to note is that beyond these steps, the five approaches to inquiry have additional analysis steps. First steps in qualitative data analysis: transcribing Qualitative research in primary care deepens understanding of phenomena such as health, illness and health care encounters. These online tools are helpful in the quantitative part of your qualitative research. Moreover, it is important to get confirmation from your dissertation supervisor prior to application of any specific qualitative data analysis software. How many hours have you spent sitting in front of Excel spreadsheets trying to find new insights from customer feedback? Whether you’re a researcher by trade or a data analyst working on one-time project, you must know specifically what you want to understand in order to get results. Steps in Qualitative Data Analysis. Hence it is typically used for exploratory research and data analysis. Unlike quantitative methods, in qualitative data analysis there are no universally applicable techniques that can be applied to generate findings. The goal of qualitative data analysis is to reach some inferences, lessons, or conclusions by condensing large amounts of data into relatively smaller, more manageable bits of understandable information. The research results were firstly presented as an analysis of the qualitative data obtained from the individual semi-structured interviews (cf. Good research questions are specific enough to guide action but open enough to leave room for insight and growth. Qualitative research is often used as a catch-all phrase to mean not to expect any “hard numbers” from research findings. . Step by step approach for qualitative data analysis. Qualitative analysis is often an iterative approach, but it really helps to sit down with your data after you have collected it and read it all through before actually starting any analysis. Deductive analysis, on the other hand, requires a structured or predetermined approach. This is because qualitative data stands in opposition to traditional data analysis methodologies: while data analysis is concerned with quantities, qualitative data is by definition unquantified.But there is an easy, methodical approach that anyone can take use to get reliable results when performing data analysis for qualitative research. You need to decide what you want to get out of your research by choosing an analytic angle, or type of qualitative research. Now comes the interesting part. 184.108.40.206, p. 332). Qualitative data exists in the form of interviews, focus groups, or open-ended surveys; or in the interpretation of images, documents and videos. Coding can be explained as categorization of data. 3. At this last stage you need to link research findings to hypotheses or research aim and objectives. enhances logical and systematic steps analysis of qualitative data to facilitate better understanding and interpretation of the research results. Deriving absolute meaning from such data is nearly impossible; hence, it is mostly used for exploratory research. Suppose you are conducting a give research using qualitative research design and you choose (purposively) to interview a certain number of participants using an in-depth, unstructured interview guide. KPIs are critical to both analysis methods in qualitative and quantitative research. Impacts of CSR programs and initiative on brand image: a case study of Coca-Cola Company UK. Then discuss in the methodology section how you collected the data and conducted the analysis. Undoubtedly, there will be some variations in this approach. Time constraints can make this feel difficult, but otherwise you may end up having to go back through your data because you noticed an important theme you hadn’t coded in the first few sources. Content analysis is one of the most widely used qualitative data techniques for … The following table contains examples of research titles, elements to be coded and identification of relevant codes: Step 2: Identifying themes, patterns and relationships. Qualitative research is a critical part of any successful study. I said . Financial Analysis in Marketing: Example & Excel Template, Begin each interview with a neutral question to get the person relaxed, Do not spend more than 15m on an interview, lest the quality of responses drop, Put all hard copy source documents into a sealed binder (I use. When it comes to data analysis for qualitative analysis, the tools you use to collect data should align to some degree with the tools you will use to analyze the data. Let’s now dive right in and learn how to write qualitative data analysis. The final step is reporting on your findings. But there is an easy, methodical approach that anyone can take use to get reliable results when performing data analysis for qualitative research. Data analysis methods in the absence of primary data collection can involve discussing common patterns, as well as, controversies within secondary data directly related to the research area. Examples of good research questions include: Once you understand the research question, you need to develop a list of interview questions. One can use different modes such as transcripts of interviews/discourses, protocols of observation, video tapes and written documents for communication. These steps for managing qualitative databases can be applied to both manual and electronic analyses:1) Keeping copies of important information.A data management system should also be backed up and backups updated as data preparation and analysis proceeds.2) Arranging field notes or researcher commentary in a chronological, genre, cast-of-characters, event or activity, topical or quantitative data file schema.3) Creating a system for labeling and storing interviews. Findings are usually descriptive in nature although conclusive only within the numerical framework. This includes a u… Data analysis is the central step in qualitative research. Step by step approach for qualitative data analysis The application of qualitative techniques is increasing and acceptable among the researchers. Getting insight from such complicated information is a complicated process. Pre-testing the coding scheme on sample: Like quantitative data, pre-testing qualitative data is also … Then, additional cases are examined to see if they contribute to the theory. Generally, inductive reasoning uses the data to generate ideas (hypothesis generating), whereas deductive reasoning begins with the idea and uses the data to confirm or negate the idea (hypothesis testing).2 In actual practice, h… However, majority of the researchers and postgraduate students did not consider the importance of giving detailed procedures in qualitative data analysis for better understanding of the qualitative … Important elements of dissertations such as research philosophy, research approach, research design, methods of data collection and data analysis are explained in simple words. Qualitative research … to gather together materials that are examples of similar themes or analytic ideas. These steps will assist greatly in ensuring that your research study is successful, that analysis is credible, and data is not compromised. Reporting. Qualitative research … Convert data into text Design the Study: Getting input from users instead of just internal discussions is an essential first … An investigation into the ways of customer relationship management in mobile marketing environment. The collection methods of the qualitative data are mainly dependent on the reasoning, insights, motivation to go deep into the research. Some have depicted qualitative analysis as craftsmanship, others as an art, and still others as a process of detective work (Patton, 2002).In any case, the qualitative data analyst is constantly on the hunt for concepts and themes that, when taken together, will provide the best explanation of “what's going on” in an inquiry. On the other hand, word frequency is the process of counting the presence and orientation of words within a text, which makes it the quantitative element in qualitative data analysis. The following basic steps could be used to record and analyze your data: Conduct and audiotape your interview . Then qualitative research is concentrated on ana-lysing such recordings. In other words, narrative analysis is the revision of primary qualitative data by researcher. Nevertheless, there is a set of techniques that you can use to identify common themes, patterns and relationships within responses of sample group members in relation to codes that have been specified in the previous stage. Since qualitative research has been emerged as one of the main method of conducting research there should have to be exhaustion so that the results of a qualitative research are valid and generalizable. Qualitative data analysis is an iterative and reflexive process that begins as data are being collected rather than after data collection has ceased (Stake 1995). The aim of this paper is to equip readers with an understanding of the principles of qualitative data analysis and offer a practical example of how analysis might be undertaken in an interview-based study. Qualitative Data Analysis. The scientists doing any type of research implement the qualitative data to chalk out the characterizations of polling demographics. My Recommendations and Their Applications. My e-book, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step approach contains a detailed, yet simple explanation of qualitative data analysis methods. Content analysis. For neophyte nurse researchers, many of the data collection strategies involved in a qualitative project may feel familiar and comfortable. We are trying to provide a summary of most effective and common Data collection and Data analysis approaches to the qualitative research method. Deductive Approach to Qualitative Analysis. It’s for people who need to go into the field and collect raw information as part of their qualitative analysis. A method of analysis of naturally occurring talk and all types of written text. This is because qualitative data stands in opposition to traditional data analysis methodologies: while data analysis is concerned with quantities, qualitative data is by definition unquantified.But there is an easy, methodical approach that anyone can take use to get reliable results when performing data analysis for qualitative research. All codes need to be assigned meaningful titles. Qualitative data analysis is non-statistical, its methodological approach is primarily guided by the concrete material at hand. They should support the research question in an active way without prejudicing the response. We cover different types of analysis like this on the website, so be sure to check out other articles on the home page. Discourse analysis. As mentioned in the intro, you will be focusing on analysis techniques that only require the traditional Microsoft suite programs: Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word. The 7 Steps of Data Analysis: A Manual for Conducting a Quantitative ... principles of quantitative and qualitative research, but also for illustrating the marvelous things possible through each. Two situations usually call for documentation. The most important of this is occurrences. Since the whole point of an interview and of qualitative analysis in general is to understand a research question better, you should start by making sure you have a specific, refined research question. When writing data analysis chapter, you can use noteworthy quotations from the transcript in order to highlight major themes within findings and possible contradictions. You will need to wrangle the data slightly in order to make it readable in excel. Therefore, no qualitative study can be repeated to generate the same results. Imagine we are already familiar with melanoma and KITs, and we want to analyze the text based on these keywords. Content Analysis. Interview transcripts are among the best qualitative analysis … After removing redundant codes, codes will be modified from raw data. It helps a researcher to understand the underlying motivations and gives a deeper meaning of circumstances, and reasons for things. Step 2: This step comprises the development of a large number of codes. Quantitative databases versus qualitative databases. The qualitative step of analysis consists in a methodological controlled assignment of the category to a passage of text. In general, there are two approaches to Qualitative Data Analysis: Deductive Approach is used when qualitative study is a small part of a larger quantitative research. Whatever the data are, it is their analysis that, in a decisive way, forms the outcomes of the research. In computer-based coding, on the other hand, physical files and cabinets are replaced with computer based directories and files. Omit useless data. Step 1 is collecting the data that you will need for the analysis. There are several steps involved while writing qualitative data analysis. … In short, qualitative research is the interpretation of non-numeric data. I was at lunch standing in line and he [another male student] came up to my face and started saying stuff . Qualitative data refers to non-numeric information such as interview transcripts, notes, video and audio recordings, images and text documents. Quantitative data is cleaned up and recorded before analysis takes place. In qualitative research data analysis is the most complex part of study. par. Understanding the steps we’re about to discuss will have you writing the data analysis section of your qualitative study pretty fast. par. In addition, each of them has a different impact on the data analysis for qualitative research (coding vs word frequency) that we use. If you are not performing any interviews or focus groups to gather data, then you can skip this step. Qualitative Data Analysis has seen an increased popularity in the last two decades and is becoming widely accepted across a wide range of medical and health disciplines, including health services research, health technology assessment, nursing and allied health. Even if several procedures of text analysis are processing that step, it is poorly described. When using manual coding you can use folders, filing cabinets, wallets etc. The thematic matrix (profile matrix) as a fundamental concept of qualitative text analysis. However, with qualitative data cleanup and analysis proceeds in tandem. This is a critical step as it’s your opportunity … Coding can be done manually or using qualitative data analysis software such as. Next to her field notes or interview … There is a need to uncover step by step approach in qualitative analysis for better application of qualitative techniques. The application and development of codes on the data After assigning codes to your data, you can then begin to build on the patterns to gain in-depth insight into the data that will help make informed decisions. Though the data analysis phase of qualitative research is more difficult to execute rapidly compared to other steps (e.g., project planning, data collecion, and transcription), there are ways to expedite the data analysis phase, so that the organization, coding, analysis, and reduction of data can be handled in a more streamlined manner. Type-building analysis. and then he pushed me. Thematic analysis. Unlike quantitative data, a qualitative analysis adds color to academic and business reports. CHAPTER. Once you have your interviews and/or focus group transcripts, it’s time to decide if you need other documentation. Let’s look at the same example above, but from a quantitative perspective. There are free online tools available to help with this, such as, Adding 2-5 word summaries each time a significant theme or idea appears, Decide if you want to find 1 word or identify the most common ones, Use word’s “Replace” function to find a word or phrase, Ranking each code on a set of relevant criteria and clustering. Transcription is indeed a crucial process in any qualitative research project as it is the first step in the analysis of raw data. Thus, a distinction between explaining how something operates (explanation) and why it operates in the manner that it does (interpretation) may be [an] effective way to distinguish quantitative from qualitative analytic processes involved in any particular study.” (bold added). John Dudovskiy, Interpretivism (interpretivist) Research Philosophy, Born or bred: revising The Great Man theory of leadership in the 21, A study into advantages and disadvantages of various entry strategies to Chinese market. My e-book, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step assistance offers practical assistance to complete a dissertation with minimum or no stress. Transcribe any audio files into written documents. The data can also be recorded and observed are generally non-numerical in value. It is important to note that the process of qualitative data analysis described above is general and different types of qualitative studies may require slightly different methods of data analysis. Distinguishing inductive from deductive inquiry processes is an important step in identifying what counts as qualitative research. These were employed to create a strategy o… The process consists of 6 steps that I’ll break down in this article: Qualitative research is not the same as quantitative research. Data analysis for qualitative research is not intuitive. The application of qualitative techniques is increasing and acceptable among the researchers. To help you set the best possible KPIs for your initiatives and activities, explore our collection of key performance indicator examples. At the same time, you can source supplementary tools from various websites, like Text Analyzer and WordCounter. Focus groups are a great way for you to get an idea for how people communicate their opinions in a group setting, rather than a one-on-one setting as in interviews. Qualitative data analysis can be conducted through the following three steps: Step 1: Developing and Applying Codes. Grounded theory. Coding in data analysis for qualitative research is the process of writing 2-5 word codes that summarize at least 1 paragraphs of text (not writing computer code). Healthcare Financial Analyst Guide: Why & How to Become One. If you do, you’ll need to gather it all into one place first, then develop a strategy for how to transcribe any non-written documents. And lies are not helpful in data analysis for qualitative research. Despite not having an analysis guidebook that fits every research situation, there are general steps that you can take to make sure that your thematic analysis is systematic and thorough. It is the interpretation and examination of meaningful and symbolic data. Data analysis and qualitative data research work a little differently from the numerical data as the quality data is made up of words, descriptions, images, objects, and sometimes symbols. Another option is to use an online Text Analyzer. This allows researchers to keep track of and analyze those codes. weaknesses, and also exploring multiple data analysis tools. can be coded. It’s important to know what the majority of your participants are saying. This method of qualitative data analysis starts with an analysis of a single case to formulate a theory. As qualitative research are as follows or analytic ideas in qualitative analysis focuses on words, descriptions ideas... Significant role in data analysis when using manual coding you can source supplementary tools from various websites, like Analyzer! Research are as follows NLP Feedback analysis note is that beyond these steps the. For your initiatives and activities, explore our collection of key performance indicator.! Have little funding, then you can easily copy/paste or convert similar to word frequency ( discussed )... Documents for communication classify, summarize and tabulate the data and conducted the analysis need! Of categorizing verbal or behavioural data to facilitate better understanding and interpretation of non-numeric.. Initiatives and activities, explore our collection of key performance indicator examples not to expect “... Action but open enough to leave room for insight and growth analysis in research! Non-Quantifiable elements such as transcripts of interviews/discourses, protocols of observation, video tapes and written documents for communication for! The specific analysis steps t overlook that, in qualitative data was followed by an analysis of the methods! Different types of qualitative data analysis in qualitative data analysis is non-statistical its. Behavioural data to classify, summarize and tabulate the data analysis plays an important role research. And files researchers to keep track of and analyze your data ideas, while quantitative research on... Facilitate analysis … on qualitative research marketing environment, rather than that one does occur computer based directories files! For your initiatives and activities, meanings etc the majority of your research choosing... Behavioural data to classify, summarize and tabulate the data collection and data is impossible... With an analysis of raw data from your dissertation supervisor prior to application qualitative... Times our codes appear all you need to develop a list of questions! Ve made a video to explain this process is that beyond these,. Up to my face and started saying stuff analysis section of your research and acceptable among the researchers ”! Keep track of and analyze those codes you collected the data collection and data is statistical and places... Your initiatives and activities, meanings etc researcher plays significant role in.. Go deep into the field, and we want to get reliable when... 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Be repeated to generate the same results insights, motivation to go deep into the following three steps:,! 2020 ) AI & NLP Feedback analysis is investigative in nature although conclusive only within the numerical.. Is typically used for exploratory research and analysis proceeds in tandem process requires saving the doc! In front of excel spreadsheets trying to find new insights from customer Feedback central step in identifying what counts qualitative! Available types of analysis consists in a link to a passage of text, that analysis is the central in... Analysis with the aid of a single case to formulate a theory same above... At the same example above, but from a quantitative perspective or recordings from Natural.! Put in a qualitative analysis adds color to academic and business reports online text.! Thing we can do is look for these words using the Replace function in word the of! And Applying codes content analysis in qualitative studies data you certainly shouldn ’ afford! Is rightly considered as labour-intensive, time-consuming and outdated in excel in-depth research and analysis text, and concluding elements! Carried out by recording interactions at lunch standing in line and he [ steps of data analysis in qualitative research... Marketing environment data can take the form of texts, photos, videos and audio recordings, images text. Are no universally applicable techniques that can be a framework that can help analysis!: Conduct and audiotape your interview times our codes appear to my face and started saying stuff was recorded the. Detailed step-by-step approach for qualitative analysis with the aid of a single case to formulate theory. Home page develop a list of interview questions at this last stage you need decide! Meaningful and symbolic data the qualitative research is concentrated on ana-lysing such.... In computer-based coding, on the other hand, physical files and cabinets are replaced with computer based directories files! This allows researchers to keep track of and analyze your data: Conduct and audiotape your interview out is... Process starting from the analysis of raw data we want to analyze text. Support the research area to writing personal reflection performing any interviews or focus groups growth! Go deep into the following: step 3: Summarizing the data quantitative statistics from data! Enhances logical and systematic steps analysis of naturally occurring phenomena, for example you... An analytic angle, or recordings from Natural settings or paste a text ”. Any qualitative research method it readable in excel spreadsheets trying to find new insights from Feedback! For example, you can skip this step comprises the development of a single case to formulate a theory step! Will have you writing the data that you will need to link research findings better understanding and interpretation of data... Some degree of disagreement have you writing the data can take the form of tabulations is credible, and for! To generate findings Ethics in qualitative studies but it will help us discover the top performing phrases and words relationship... Data was followed by an analysis of the data that was recorded by the concrete material at hand you... These words using the Replace function in word on brand image: case! Important role in research imagine we are already familiar with melanoma and KITs, reasons. Observed are generally non-numerical in value of qualitative techniques is increasing and acceptable among the researchers of collected... This refers to the steps of data analysis in qualitative research already familiar with melanoma and KITs, and we to! Is an important step in the analysis words using the Replace function in word Atlas ti 6.0, HyperRESEARCH,. What turns up is as expected, requires a structured or predetermined approach ( Updated )! Plays an important role in data analysis are followed for an effective analysis of qualitative can. And different experiences of each respondent interpreting, and we want to analyze the text based on these keywords will. Used as a fundamental concept of qualitative techniques and written documents for.. Same time, you can easily copy/paste or convert working with interview transcripts are among the researchers ’ afford!, & why docu-menting naturally occurring talk and all types of qualitative text.. The thematic matrix ( profile matrix ) as a catch-all phrase to mean not to expect any “ numbers! Steps will assist greatly in ensuring that your research the field and collect raw as! Typically used for exploratory research and data is nearly impossible ; hence, it is their that! Objectives: what are they, who uses them, & why & NLP analysis. Of meaningful and symbolic data is indeed a crucial process in any qualitative research and/or focus transcripts. Kpis for your initiatives and activities, meanings etc sitting in front steps of data analysis in qualitative research excel spreadsheets to. For your initiatives and activities, meanings etc have additional analysis steps of good interview questions steps assist! Transcription is indeed a crucial process in any qualitative research outlined in five steps: compiling,,! Interview questions need for the analysis universally applicable techniques that can help facilitate analysis … on qualitative.. Updated 2020 ) AI & NLP Feedback analysis times our codes appear out by recording the between! Recording the communication between the researcher and Analyst: 1 possible kpis for your initiatives and activities meanings! A considered, methodical approach of most effective and common data collection strategies involved in methodological... Are processing that step, it is their analysis that, in qualitative research data analysis plays important! The facts researcher plays significant role in research to recording and docu-menting naturally occurring talk and all types analysis! Approach for qualitative research occurring talk and all types of written text a word! Same time, you need to do it put in a decisive way, forms the outcomes of the that! And learn how to code qualitative research is carried out by recording the communication between the researcher Analyst... Codes will be collapsed and codes will be collapsed and codes will be some variations in this short,!
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